Targeted Immunotherapy


power in specificity

targeted next-generation cytokines

IL2 - the first immunotherapy

The promise of cytokine therapy

The FDA approved high-dose interleukin 2 for the treatment of advanced cancer in the 1990’s, making it the first immunotherapy. Administration of systemic high-dose IL2 improves the tumor immune response via activation of the cancer-killing natural killer cells (NK) and CD8+ T cell. High-dose IL2 results reverses tumor suppression of the immune system and profoundly activates these cells.

Up to 9% of renal cell carcinoma and melanoma patients have a durable, long-lasting curative response after IL2 therapy.

Decades of experience with high-dose IL2 indicate superiority to modern immuno-oncology therapeutics. Unfortunately, the use high-dose IL2 therapy is limited due to off-target effects on the vasculature and T regulatory cells. Stimulation of these cells results in significant adverse effects in patients.

Courier targeting technology

first-in-class cytokine therapy

IL2-family therapeutics hit a broad range of tumor-killing and toxicity-causing cells. These off-target effects limit the widespread use of these therapeutics and the overall effectiveness of the therapy.

CT101 is a rationally designed targeted IL2R agonist targeted directly to the cancer-killing immune cells (NK and CD8 T cells). Systemic activation of these cells enables them to seek out and destroy cancer throughout the body.

direct immune targeting

an immune focused platform

Courier's targeting technology can be extended to a broad number of immunomodulatory drugs. We are actively developing a variety of therapeutics which take an immune-first approach.


A novel retargeted first-in-class common-gamma chain cytokine offers superior CD8+T cell expansion and function

Banerjee A, Krupnick AS
AACR Cancer Immunol Res

Superior expansion of central memory CD8+ T cells using NKG2D-targeted delivery of IL-2

Li K, Shi L, Wang Q, Onyema O, Guo Y, Krupnick AS
AACR Cancer Res

Novel immune oncology strategy for targeted cytotoxic lymphocyte activation

ELazear E, Hein S, Westwick J, Watkins D, Krupnick AS

Targeting of IL-2 to cytotoxic lymphocytes as an improved method of cytokine-driven immunotherapy

Lazear E, Ghasemi R, Hein SM, Westwick J, Watkins D, Fremont DH, Krupnick AS